When walking alongside the road, it is a good idea to walk against the flow of traffic so you can see oncoming vehicles. If you need to cross, do so only at a controlled crossings and only when you have the pedestrian crossing signal. Even then, try to make eye contact with drivers so that they acknowledge your presence. Wear bright visible clothing. Don't be absorbed in your Smart phone or other device meaning that you are not aware of what is going on around you.
Make sure that when you are walking you stay aware of bikes and runners. Listen for bells from cyclists behind you. When walking down the sidewalk, stay to one side, rather than weaving all over the road. Keep the volume of your iPod down so that you can hear the sounds around you.
If you are walking a dog, make sure that the leash is relatively short. Make sure that you control your pet properly. Be aware of stranger danger when you are walking. Select walking routes that are well frequented by runners, walkers and bikers. If you come across a suspicious looking person, be ready to change your course, or enter a shop to avoid them.