Accidents are the result of an error that is within the control of one or more workers. A hazard is any behavior, practice or condition that can lead to injury or illness. It also relates to damage to property or the environment. Health hazards include chemical agents, physical agents (sound or energy), biological agents (microorganisms) and ergonomic hazards (faulty equipment).

Safety hazards that can lead to major injury can be machinery and equipment related, safety and energy hazards, confined space hazards and a material handling hazards.

Hazard recognition relates to the identification of a suspected hazard due to its potential to harm or do damage. Workers who identify a hazard should complete a hazard recognition form and submit it to management. When assessing a near miss hazard, you should undertake a detailed inspection or testing of the hazard.

There should also be a physical inspection by trained individuals of a near miss. Workers should be interviewed using the Job Safety Analysis (JSA) procedure. There should also be a complete review of records in closing first aid and safety meetings that took place. The findings of the investigation should then be compared to predetermined standards.